Thursday, 7 May 2020

Rehabilitation of Exceptional Children: Role of Community, Role of Government


Rehabilitation of Exceptional Children: Role of Community, Role of Government

 • Community-Based Rehabilitation is essentially meant to ensure that disabled people, wherever they are, not discriminated against or deprived.

 • The idea of CBR is that, even if people learn very slowly, or have problems seeing or hearing, or find it hard to move about, they should still be respected for being men and women, girls and boys.

 • The Ministry of Railways offers a discount of 75% on fare for all classes, and 50% on season tickets to a person with disability on production of a valid Certificate of Disability.

 • Blind literature and packages are exempt from postage and postal fees under prescribed conditions.

 Persons with visual and locomotor disability get preferential allotment.

 • The parent or guardian of a disabled person is entitled to a deduction up to Rs 40,000 in tax on income.  Deduction is also permissible to an individual or family member with respect to expenditure incurred on medical treatment of a disabled person.

 • Various agencies have been established to spearhead, maintain and encourage rehabilitation efforts.

 The National Institutes provide direct services (e. g. assessment, early intervention, training etc. ), conduct human resource development programmes, engage in research activities independently and in collaboration with voluntary agencies, and produce resource material and equipment relevant to Indian needs.

 • Most people believe that disability is either an irremediable medical condition or an act of fate.  In both cases the care must rest with the family of the disabled and not on the community.

 • Prevention and early detection are important components of the medical model.

 However, measures taken for these are insufficient.

 • At times the process of availing of the benefits of schemes is so cumbersome and time-consuming that most people prefer to by-pass them.

 • The Persons with Disability Act (PDA) promises creation of facilities in almost all areas pertaining to disability.

 But 'appropriate authorities' are directed to 'endeavor' or 'promote' integration (of persons with disabilities) 'within the limits of their economic capacity and development'.

 • Full inclusion of the disabled would mean removing the physical barriers of participation.

 Conditions and regulations that actually build physical barriers must be changed immediately.

 • To the stakeholders in the field, disability legislation in India seems progressive in spirit but lacking in the strength to progress.

 On the other hand, a strong legislation might remove legal barriers to participation but cannot ensure removal of social barriers against people with disabilities.

 • The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme was launched in 1975-76. Its objectives were to improve the nutritional and health status of children in the 0-6 age-group, provide nutrition and health education for all women within the age range of 15-44, and enhance the capability of mothers to tend to the health and nutritional needs of children.

 • The National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme of 1986 aimed to prevent occurrence of goiter, mental retardation and hearing impairment.

 • Efforts for early identification of disability have been made both by government and nongovernment organisations (NGOs).

 Government hospitals are expected to have the expertise and equipment to screen and identify disability.

 • The education of children with disabilities is offered through a variety of service models ranging from segregation to full inclusion in a mainstream classroom.

 • More than 50,000 children with disability are enrolled in the Integrated Education for Disabled Children, a government-sponsored programme.  • The last decade of the 20th century saw the enactment of three legislations for the rehabilitation and welfare of people with disabilities.

 • The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act was passed in 1995. This is an important legislation that provides for both preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation such as education, employment and vocational training, reservation, research and human resource development, creation of barrier-free environment, inclusion and independent living.

 • The Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992 led to the establishment of the Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI).

 • The National Trust Act 1999 provides for the constitution of a national body for the welfare of people with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and multiple disabilities.

    • Community: All the people who live in a particular area, country.

 • Exceptional: Unusually good.

 • Integrated: In which many different parts are closely connected and work successfully together.

 • Legislative: Connected with the act of making and passing laws.